Not content with tightening his grip on the traditional media, President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has also gone out of his way to control the Internet, which is much used as a forum for free expression by Turkey’s embattled civil society. Following adoption of draconian reforms, websites are routinely blocked without reference to a judge as the government is now able to order “preventive blocking” of any content on an “emergency” basis. Internet service providers have four hours to comply and judicial endorsement of the decision after the event is virtually automatic. The authorities are also responsible for almost half of the Turkish content removal requests submitted to Twitter and, if need be, the government does not hesitate to block to the entire Twitter website or indeed the entire YouTube website – an extreme to which only a handful of the world’s most repressive regimes have so far resorted. The MIT intelligence agency has meanwhile steadily improved and expanded its mass surveillance techniques. Turkey is ranked 149th out of 180 countries in RSF’s latest World Press Freedom Index.